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Cancer

How Cancer Starts And Its Effects

An individual starts life with every cell in the body having identical DNA. Under normal conditions, the 100 trillion cells in the human body reproduce themselves in an orderly way. Cell development takes place to reparation and replaces old, worn-out tissue. Cell development is well-ordered by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), found in the nucleus of each cell. DNA makes up genes, which are wrapped into coils that form chromosomes in the nucleolus of the cell. A healthy cell will duplicate, on average, 52 times before cell death. Normally, the DNA particle is repeated perfectly during cell division. When cancer starts the DNA molecule is not replicated exactly, specialized enzymes make repairs quickly. Occa­sionally, however, a cell will divide without being repaired. The two new cells will both carry the resulting defect. Usu­ally, Cancer Starts   damaged cells are sensed and are instructed to carry out programmed cell death (PCD). But when conditions allow abnormal cells to survive the Cancer Starts, they will continue to di­vide and pass on the defect.

DNA MUTATIONS

Within a person’s DNA are three key genes that are involved, in Cancer Starts if they become defective: proto-onco-genes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes proncogenes control the type of cell being created from the  DNA instructions  (kidney cell, skin cell, and so on) and the  frequency of cell division. In cell division, these genes act like the gas pedal does in a car, spurring the process on. Tuner suppressor genes slow cell growth during specified point of the cell lifecycle and, therefore, act like the brake Pedal in a car. DNA repair genes fix any mistakes that occur during cell division using enzymes they code for this purpose.  In a healthy cell, these genes all work together to repair and replace cells. Defects in these genes-whether caused by chance caused by external factors such as radiation, chemicals, free radicals, and viruses; or caused by internal factors such as immune conditions, hormones, and genetic mutation ultimately allow the cell to grow into a tumor. Mutated tumor suppressor genes act like brakes that have gone out, allowing uncontrolled growth.