Categories
Hepatitis

Hepatitis And Its Effects

Hepatitis is a general term that means inflammation of the liver, hut it also refers to a group of viruses (A, B, C, D, and E) that cause liver inflammation through infection. Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of liver cancer and the need for liver transplants. About 4.4 million Americans live with chronic hepatitis and don’t know they are infected.

· Hepatitis viruses spread through physical contact with the blood or bodily fluid of an infected person. Of the five vi­ruses, B and C are the two most frequently transmitted through sexual activity, with Hepatitis B being the most prevalent. Most people don’t think of hepatitis as an STI; however, it ls estimated that as much as 30 percent of infec­tions result from sexual transmission.

Hepatitis B (HBV) is the world’s most common liver infection, affecting 240 million people chronically worldwide. HBV is reported to be SO to 100 times more infectious than HIV. Hepatitis B is transmitted when blood, semen, or other bodily fluid enters the body through kissing and vagina!, anal, or oral sex. HBV can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during.

Symptoms Of Hepatitis

Hepatitis viruses travel through infected tissue into the blood and then to the liver, where they cause inflammation and cell damage. Hepatitis B can cause both acute and chronic liver inflammation. Only 50 percent of newly acquired infections produce symptoms, which include yellow coloration of the skin or eyes (jaundice), fever, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, tiredness, and nausea. The initial (acute) phase of infection lasts only a few weeks and then clears for the majority of people. Those who recover from the initial infection develop immunity to HBV, protecting them from future infection. Only a small number of people who do not recover from the infection develop chronic inflammation that can lead to disease and cancer in the liver.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Infection from HBV can be diagnosed by laboratory tests detecting the virus or antibodies against the virus in the blood. Hepatitis B is one of only two S’I’Is that can be success­fully prevented through vaccination. Since 1990, implemen­tation of routine vaccination at birth has resulted in a drastic 82 percent decline in rates of acute Hepatitis B, especially among children. The vaccine is administered in a three-dose series of injections to the muscle tissue of the shoulder over a period of months. It is recommended that all babies be vac­cinated at birth, as well as at-risk groups, including sexually active men and women, illicit drug users, health care work­ers, adoptees from countries where Hepatitis B is common, international travelers, and welfare volunteers.

Categories
Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Screening And Its Effects

Breast cancer screening has been a hotly debated topic in recent years, especially mammogram screening. The controversy is based on the fact that breast cancer screening is not a precise science, similar to several other types of screening for various cancers. The issue is complex, and guidelines published in recent years have changed to recommend fewer mammograms and beginning at a later age. Officials creating these breast cancer guidelines point to con­cerns for women who are misdiagnosed as possibly having cancer, or they are over diagnosed for a small group of precancerous cells. As a result, they often undergo unnecessary stress and medical intervention. A woman who has an breast cancer abnor­mal screening test will undoubtedly experience fear and stress as she continues the process of finding out whether it is Cancer.

 However, women may be able to deal better with breast cancer screening results if it were widely known that misdiagnosis happens frequently. Of women who receive mammograms annually, half will experience a false positive result at least once in ten years.”

Precautions And Its Consequences

Cost is also a factor. Several organizations and physicians, nonetheless, indicate that mammograms lead to early detection and have contributed to the current 90 percent survival rate. Early detection increases the chance that

the cancer can be treated with a lumpectomy instead of more invasive and disfiguring surgery , The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommended yearly mammograms beginning at age 40, and clinical breast exams by a physician every three years for women between ages 20 and 40 and every year for women older than age 40. The organization revised its breast cancer guidelines in 2015 to recommend yearly mammograms beginning at age 45, and mammograms every other year beginning at age 55. Women should be aware of any change in their breasts and report them to a physician.

Risk And Recommendations

Personal risk factors should be considered when determining when to start mammograms, whether to request breast cancer exams from a physician during checkup visits, and how often each should be done. Women with low to moderate risk should consider practicing monthly BSE and having their breasts examined by a doctor as a part of a cancer-related checkup. They should also receive periodic mammograms. Women at high risk should practice monthly BSE and have their breasts examined regularly by a doctor. See your doctor for the recommended examinations (including mammograms and physical exam of breasts).

Categories
sun Exposure

Effects Of Too Much Sun Exposure

Near-daily “safe sun” exposure-that is, 10 to 20 minutes o: unprotected exposure during peak hours of the day-is beneficial to health, but too much sun exposure to ultraviolet radia­tion is a major contributor to skin cancer. The most common sites of skin cancer are the areas exposed to the sun most often (face, neck, and back of the hands). Ultraviolet rays are strongest when the sun is high in the sky. Therefore, you should avoid prolonged sun exposure between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 pm. Take the shadow test: If your shadow is shorter than you, the ultraviolet (UV) rays are at their strongest.

There are three main types of skin cancer, each named after the type of cell from which they originate:

Basal cell carcinoma. Basal cells form the base, or the innermost layer of the epidermis.

Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous originates from the word “scale.” These flatter cells from the outside layer of the epidermis and shed as new cells form.  Melanoma originates in cells that Create melanin, which gives color to skin.

Basal and squamous cell carcinoma require treatment but in the majority of cases do not spread to other parts of the body. Melanoma. The most deadly type of skin cancer, can appear quickly and metastasize in as little as 6 months. In 2016, it caused approximately 10,130 deaths in the United States. That number is expected to double by 2030. About 20 percent of Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime. Treatment for no melanoma skin cancer increased by more than 75 percent between 1992 and 2006. Melanoma is the number-one cancer killer of young women and increased 800 and 400 percent in young women and young men, respectively, between 1970 and 2009.

Consequences Of Sun Exposure.

One to two blistering sunburns can double the lifetime risk for melanoma, even more so if the sunburn takes place prior to age 18, when cells divide at a much faster rate than later in life. A person can easily be overexposed during a day in the sun sooner than they expect and not realize until later in the day when the sunburn becomes painful and the damage is already done. Overexposure can be difficult to predict because the strength of the sun exposure varies according to the time of year, a location’s latitude and elevation, and the sun’s reflection off

snow or water, among other factors. Be sure to understand how sun exposure changes by studying the “Sun Exposure” behavior modification planning. Further­more, nothing is healthy about a “healthy tan” Tanning of the skin is the body’s natural reaction to permanent and irreversible damage from too much exposure to the sun. Even small doses of sunlight add up to a greater risk for skin cancer and prema­ture aging. The tan fades at the end of the summer season, but the underlying skin damage does not disappear.

The stinging sunburn comes from ultraviolet B (UVB) rays, which are also thought to be the main cause of prema­ture wrinkling and skin aging, roughened/leathery/sagging skin, and skin cancer. Unfortunately, the damage may not become evident until up to 20 years later. By comparison, skin that has not been overexposed to the sun remains smooth and unblemished and, over time, shows less evidence of aging.

Sun lamps and tanning parlors provide mainly ultraviolet A (UVA) rays. Once thought to be safe, they too are now known to be damaging and have been linked to melanoma. As little as 15 to 30 minutes of exposure to UVA rays can be as dangerous as a day spent in the sun. Similar to regular exposure to sun, short-term sun exposure to recreational tanning at a salon causes DNA alterations that can lead to skin cancer.

Categories
Cancer

Ten Recommendations For A Cancer Prevention lifestyle

The American Cancer Society released Guidelines for Preventing Cancer on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention.

 These guidelines recommend that people:

1. Maintain healthy body weight throughout life.

2. Accept a actually active lifestyle, which should comprise exercise and limited time spent doing sedentary activities.

3. Adopt a fit diet with importance on plant foods.

4. Perimeter alcohol feeding if they drink alcoholic beverages.

Additional existing Guidelines for Preventing Cancer that have been established for decades round out a list of top 10 Recommendations for a cancer prevention lifestyle:

5. Abstain from tobacco use in any form (and limit exposure to secondhand smoke).

6. Avoid exposure to occupational hazards  as sometimes found by farm, pest-control, gas station, print shop, dry-cleaning, oil refinery, chemical plant, and health care workers; lab technicians (who sterilize equipment); and hair and nail salon employees among others

Practice safe sun exposure and avoid overexposure to ultraviolet light when the sunlight is most intense.

Conclusion Of Prevention

Limit the consumption of processed, charred, or well done meats, which are high in heterotypic amines and polyromantic hydrocarbons. Avoid high-heat cooking and grilling. Do so on rare occasions only.

Have your home periodically tested for radon (which forms naturally and collects in homes; testing is en­couraged even if neighbors have already had their homes tested) and have your tap water tested for arsenic. State and local EPA offices provide information on radon and arsenic testing.

Be aware of outdoor and indoor air quality and take necessary precautions and Guidelines for Preventing Cancer. Like many other risk factors, air toxins pose an extremely small but real threat with repeated exposure (to learn about the specific items around you that may be a concern.

Categories
Cancer

Guidelines For Preventing Cancer

The biggest factor in fighting cancer today is health educa­tion. A survey conducted by the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) and Guidelines for Preventing Cancer   revealed alarming results about our understanding of the link between lifestyle and cancer risk. Fewer than half of respondents were aware of the link between diets low in vegetables and fruits and cancer risk or of the link between insufficient physical activity and cancer.

Cancer prevention education is an urgent concern because of the real control people have over their own cancer risk. The AlCR assessed Guidelines for Preventing Cancer lifestyle choices of 58,000 people to deter­mine how many of the AJCR’s recommendations to reduce cancer people were adhering to. The survey showed that with each recommendation adopted by a person, cancer risk de­creased. The study results found that people who followed a minimum of five recommendations halved their risk of dying from cancer as compared to people who followed none. People need to be educated about Guidelines for Preventing Cancer the risk issues for cancer and the advices for early recognition. The most actual way to safeguard against cancer is to change adverse lifestyle habits and behavior.

Ten Recommendations for A Cancer Prevention Llifestyle

The American Cancer Society released Guidelines for Preventing Cancer on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention.

 These guidelines recommend that people:

1.            Maintain healthy body weight throughout life.

2.            Accept a actually active lifestyle, which should comprise exercise and limited time spent doing sedentary activities.

3.            Adopt a fit diet with importance on plant foods.

4.            Maximum alcohol drinking if they drink alcoholic beverages.

Additional existing Guidelines for Preventing Cancer that have been established for decades round out a list of top 10 Recommendations for a cancer prevention lifestyle:

5.            Abstain from tobacco use in any form (and limit exposure to secondhand smoke).

6.            Avoid exposure to occupational hazards (see Figure 12.6) as sometimes found by farm, pest-control, gas station, print shop, dry-cleaning, oil refinery, chemical plant, and health care workers; lab technicians (who sterilize equipment); and hair and nail salon employees among others

7. Practice safe sun exposure and avoid overexposure to ultraviolet light when the sunlight is most intense.

Limit the consumption of processed, charred, or well done meats, which are high in heterotypic amines and polyromantic hydrocarbons. Avoid high-heat cooking and grilling. Do so on rare occasions only.

Have your home periodically tested for radon (which forms naturally and collects in homes; testing is en­couraged even if neighbors have already had their homes tested) and have your tap water tested for arsenic.  State and local EPA offices provide information on radon and arsenic testing.

Be aware of outdoor and indoor air quality and take necessary precautions and Guidelines for Preventing Cancer   . Like many other risk factors, airtoxins pose an extremely small but real threat with repeated exposure (to learn about the specific items around you that may be a concern.