corona virus

Summary about Coronavirus in Englsih /Urdu

The corona virus is a hazardous virus that reasons several flu and breathing sicknesses. This kind of worm is communal in animals but can only distress certain types of humans. These viruses are capable of transferring from animals to humans. Symptoms such as headache, nausea, cough, and fatigue can be seen in people affected by the Corona virus. In case of any such symptoms, immediate contact and consultation with a doctor is necessary.

HIV And AIDS Infections

HIV Infection, Aids And Its Effects

Of  STis, human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection non 15 the most frightening because in most cases it is fatal and it has no known cure. AIDS-which stands for attained immune deficiency syndrome-is the end phase of infection by HIY.   You have the opportunity to evaluate your basic understanding of HIV infection and AIDS.

HIV is a prolonged transferrable infection that is handed from one person to another concluded blood-to-blood and sexual interaction. The infection spreads most regularly among individuals who involve in risky behavior, such as having insecure sex or involvement hypodermic needles. When a individual becomes infected with HIV, the virus multiplies, then attacks and destroys white blood cells. These cells arc part of the immune system and their function is to fight off HIV infection and decease in the body.

As the number of white blood cells that arc killed increases the body’s immune system gradually breaks down or may be destroyed. Without an immune system, a person become susceptible to various opportunistic infections and to cancer.

Transmission Of HIV

HIV is transmitted by the exchange of four body fluids, listed in order of highest concentration of the virus: blood. Segment vaginal secretions, and maternal milk. The concentration HIV infection found in other body fluids including tears, sweat, feces, or urine is too minimal to be infectious, this means that it is virtually impossible to become infected with the virus through casual contact with a person infected With HIV. HIV infection  cannot be transmitted by spending time with, shaking hands with, or hugging an infected person; from a toilet seat, dishes or silverware used by an HIV patient; or by involvement a drink, diet, a towel, or clothes with a person who has HIV infection. Because the virus can only live within body cells and fluids, once exposed to air, HIV cannot survive outside the body longer than a few minutes. The only way for HIV to be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact with a surface contaminated with infected bodily fluid is it comes in direct contact with an access point into the bloodstream through an open cut or wound or through vaginal, anal, or oral sex.


Hepatitis And Its Effects

Hepatitis is a general term that means inflammation of the liver, hut it also refers to a group of viruses (A, B, C, D, and E) that cause liver inflammation through infection. Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of liver cancer and the need for liver transplants. About 4.4 million Americans live with chronic hepatitis and don’t know they are infected.

· Hepatitis viruses spread through physical contact with the blood or bodily fluid of an infected person. Of the five vi­ruses, B and C are the two most frequently transmitted through sexual activity, with Hepatitis B being the most prevalent. Most people don’t think of hepatitis as an STI; however, it ls estimated that as much as 30 percent of infec­tions result from sexual transmission.

Hepatitis B (HBV) is the world’s most common liver infection, affecting 240 million people chronically worldwide. HBV is reported to be SO to 100 times more infectious than HIV. Hepatitis B is transmitted when blood, semen, or other bodily fluid enters the body through kissing and vagina!, anal, or oral sex. HBV can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during.

Symptoms Of Hepatitis

Hepatitis viruses travel through infected tissue into the blood and then to the liver, where they cause inflammation and cell damage. Hepatitis B can cause both acute and chronic liver inflammation. Only 50 percent of newly acquired infections produce symptoms, which include yellow coloration of the skin or eyes (jaundice), fever, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, tiredness, and nausea. The initial (acute) phase of infection lasts only a few weeks and then clears for the majority of people. Those who recover from the initial infection develop immunity to HBV, protecting them from future infection. Only a small number of people who do not recover from the infection develop chronic inflammation that can lead to disease and cancer in the liver.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Infection from HBV can be diagnosed by laboratory tests detecting the virus or antibodies against the virus in the blood. Hepatitis B is one of only two S’I’Is that can be success­fully prevented through vaccination. Since 1990, implemen­tation of routine vaccination at birth has resulted in a drastic 82 percent decline in rates of acute Hepatitis B, especially among children. The vaccine is administered in a three-dose series of injections to the muscle tissue of the shoulder over a period of months. It is recommended that all babies be vac­cinated at birth, as well as at-risk groups, including sexually active men and women, illicit drug users, health care work­ers, adoptees from countries where Hepatitis B is common, international travelers, and welfare volunteers.

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Screening And Its Effects

Breast cancer screening has been a hotly debated topic in recent years, especially mammogram screening. The controversy is based on the fact that breast cancer screening is not a precise science, similar to several other types of screening for various cancers. The issue is complex, and guidelines published in recent years have changed to recommend fewer mammograms and beginning at a later age. Officials creating these breast cancer guidelines point to con­cerns for women who are misdiagnosed as possibly having cancer, or they are over diagnosed for a small group of precancerous cells. As a result, they often undergo unnecessary stress and medical intervention. A woman who has an breast cancer abnor­mal screening test will undoubtedly experience fear and stress as she continues the process of finding out whether it is Cancer.

 However, women may be able to deal better with breast cancer screening results if it were widely known that misdiagnosis happens frequently. Of women who receive mammograms annually, half will experience a false positive result at least once in ten years.”

Precautions And Its Consequences

Cost is also a factor. Several organizations and physicians, nonetheless, indicate that mammograms lead to early detection and have contributed to the current 90 percent survival rate. Early detection increases the chance that

the cancer can be treated with a lumpectomy instead of more invasive and disfiguring surgery , The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommended yearly mammograms beginning at age 40, and clinical breast exams by a physician every three years for women between ages 20 and 40 and every year for women older than age 40. The organization revised its breast cancer guidelines in 2015 to recommend yearly mammograms beginning at age 45, and mammograms every other year beginning at age 55. Women should be aware of any change in their breasts and report them to a physician.

Risk And Recommendations

Personal risk factors should be considered when determining when to start mammograms, whether to request breast cancer exams from a physician during checkup visits, and how often each should be done. Women with low to moderate risk should consider practicing monthly BSE and having their breasts examined by a doctor as a part of a cancer-related checkup. They should also receive periodic mammograms. Women at high risk should practice monthly BSE and have their breasts examined regularly by a doctor. See your doctor for the recommended examinations (including mammograms and physical exam of breasts).

sun Exposure

Effects Of Too Much Sun Exposure

Near-daily “safe sun” exposure-that is, 10 to 20 minutes o: unprotected exposure during peak hours of the day-is beneficial to health, but too much sun exposure to ultraviolet radia­tion is a major contributor to skin cancer. The most common sites of skin cancer are the areas exposed to the sun most often (face, neck, and back of the hands). Ultraviolet rays are strongest when the sun is high in the sky. Therefore, you should avoid prolonged sun exposure between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 pm. Take the shadow test: If your shadow is shorter than you, the ultraviolet (UV) rays are at their strongest.

There are three main types of skin cancer, each named after the type of cell from which they originate:

Basal cell carcinoma. Basal cells form the base, or the innermost layer of the epidermis.

Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous originates from the word “scale.” These flatter cells from the outside layer of the epidermis and shed as new cells form.  Melanoma originates in cells that Create melanin, which gives color to skin.

Basal and squamous cell carcinoma require treatment but in the majority of cases do not spread to other parts of the body. Melanoma. The most deadly type of skin cancer, can appear quickly and metastasize in as little as 6 months. In 2016, it caused approximately 10,130 deaths in the United States. That number is expected to double by 2030. About 20 percent of Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime. Treatment for no melanoma skin cancer increased by more than 75 percent between 1992 and 2006. Melanoma is the number-one cancer killer of young women and increased 800 and 400 percent in young women and young men, respectively, between 1970 and 2009.

Consequences Of Sun Exposure.

One to two blistering sunburns can double the lifetime risk for melanoma, even more so if the sunburn takes place prior to age 18, when cells divide at a much faster rate than later in life. A person can easily be overexposed during a day in the sun sooner than they expect and not realize until later in the day when the sunburn becomes painful and the damage is already done. Overexposure can be difficult to predict because the strength of the sun exposure varies according to the time of year, a location’s latitude and elevation, and the sun’s reflection off

snow or water, among other factors. Be sure to understand how sun exposure changes by studying the “Sun Exposure” behavior modification planning. Further­more, nothing is healthy about a “healthy tan” Tanning of the skin is the body’s natural reaction to permanent and irreversible damage from too much exposure to the sun. Even small doses of sunlight add up to a greater risk for skin cancer and prema­ture aging. The tan fades at the end of the summer season, but the underlying skin damage does not disappear.

The stinging sunburn comes from ultraviolet B (UVB) rays, which are also thought to be the main cause of prema­ture wrinkling and skin aging, roughened/leathery/sagging skin, and skin cancer. Unfortunately, the damage may not become evident until up to 20 years later. By comparison, skin that has not been overexposed to the sun remains smooth and unblemished and, over time, shows less evidence of aging.

Sun lamps and tanning parlors provide mainly ultraviolet A (UVA) rays. Once thought to be safe, they too are now known to be damaging and have been linked to melanoma. As little as 15 to 30 minutes of exposure to UVA rays can be as dangerous as a day spent in the sun. Similar to regular exposure to sun, short-term sun exposure to recreational tanning at a salon causes DNA alterations that can lead to skin cancer.